Western Saints in the Russian Orthodox Church

Originally appeared at: pravblog.ru

Orthodoxy is multifaceted and is not limited to one Greek tradition. Another venerable and well-developed tradition is the Latin tradition. Its exponents are Western saints. Which of the Western ascetics of the 1st millennium can be considered saints, and which cannot, is not always an easy question. According to St. John Maximovich (†1966), “the departure and falling away of the West from the one Universal Church overshadowed the truth here and mixed it with deception. It was necessary to establish which of those revered here as pillars... of the faith really are such. This work could not be left to private researchers, since this was the responsibility of the Diocese, and it had to do it” [1]. 

Now this work which St. John spoke about, is something in which Orthodox churches in the West are engaged upon, especially those that belong to the Western rite, including the Western Rite Vicariate of the North American Archdiocese of the Church of Antioch, the Western dioceses of the Romanian, Serbian, and Constantinople Churches, the Western Exarchate of the Russian Church, and the Holy Trinity Monastery in Weserbergland (Bulgarian Church). Let's try to note several positive consequences of this work.

A Healthy Focus on the True Universality of the Church
While much of today's ecumenical relations are sadly built upon the blurring of boundaries between confessions, one of the few healthy ecumenical policies is the glorification of Western saints. It's a practice which is most promising for the Eastern Church: we are talking about movement towards a “return” to the ancient undivided Church through the veneration of its saints — both eastern and western [2].

In the first millennium of Christian history, the Western and Eastern Churches were united. And this unity was not imaginary, but real. Eastern bishops considered Western bishops to be their brothers in Christ, performed divine services together with them, and commemorated the primates of Western churches. In addition, the unity of tradition was preserved, the best exponents of which were persons who achieved special merit in good deeds, missions, instruction and contemplation, that is, saints.

The glorification of Western saints, or as St. John of Shanghai said, “restoring their veneration,” is, on the one hand, a concession to today’s Western Christians, which the Orthodox Church is ready to make; on the other hand, it is a definition of the boundaries of our division with them.

Western saints would wear clothes unusual to our eyes, say prayers unfamiliar to us, and perform rituals unfamiliar to us — but they had all this while maintaining Eucharistic unity with the Eastern Church. These Western saints in the 1st millennium had what was necessary to achieve holiness and to remain in communion with the Church.

In addition to examples of preserved church unity, during that time we also find the founders of the future division, and most of those founders were admonished or even condemned by these same Western saints. By restoring veneration for some ascetics and denying it to others, we are drawing a line beyond which the Orthodox Church is not ready to cross.

Understanding the Great Schism
By carrying out such work, we not only set a limit to ecumenical activity, but also reveal the very essence of the Great Schism that took place. The schism is not determined by the year 1054 or any other date. The schism is a long process that finally ended at the time of the complete cessation of the Eucharistic communion of the Roman Church with all other Orthodox Churches. In 1054, Eucharistic communion was interrupted only between the Roman and Constantinople churches. But other local churches continued to maintain communion with Rome. The last church to break communication with Rome was the Church of Alexandria, and this happened only in 1219. Some have suggested that the Great Schism did not fully take place until the year 1285. It is also notable that an Orthodox Benedictine monastery — Amalfion Monastery — observed the Western Rite on Mt. Athos until the end of the 13th century. Thus, pursuing the same historical dates, we would have to conclude that the Great Schism must be attributed only to the 13th century.

The dates record the established division, but the schism begins with heresy or with a serious canonical crime of specific individuals. And to describe the schism, it is necessary to consider in detail how this or that heresy developed. Those who preached this very heresy or otherwise contributed to the future division of churches cannot be venerated in the Orthodox Church. By analyzing the life and teachings of Western ascetics, we can see how false doctrines developed and how a schism was formed. Among the fathers of the schism one can name Bishop Theodulf of Orleans, Emperor Charlemagne, Pope Nicholas, Cardinal Humbert, Pope Gregory VII and others.

On the contrary, Western saints often came into direct conflict with the teachings of the schismatic teachers, showing the West itself that the heresies and canonical crimes they produced were not called such by chance. This is the second important meaning of the glorification of Western saints. By turning to Western saints we ourselves are even more affirmed in the Orthodox faith.

For example, Western saints denounced the heresy about the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Son. St. Fulgentius of Ruspia († 533) [3] says that although the Holy Spirit rests in the Father and the Son, nevertheless He proceeds entirely from the Father: “Containing the rule of the apostolic faith, we confess the Holy Spirit not for anyone else, but for God, not separated either from the Son or from the Father and not merging with either the Son or the Father. For He is one and the same Spirit of the Father and the Son, proceeding entirely from the Father and resting entirely in Both (totus de Patre procedens, totus in utroque consistens), inseparable from Both, because He is common to both One and the Other." [4]. And St. Pope Damasus completely anathematizes those who follow the wicked doctrine of the double procession of the Spirit: “To those who do not recognize that the Holy Spirit is truly and properly from the Father, just as the Son is from the Divine essence, and that [He is] true God, yes will be anathema" [5].

And there are many similar examples. On the question of the immutability of the Creed, one can recall the steadfastness of the holy popes St. Agathon († 681), St. Theodore († 649) and St. Leo III († 816) [6]. St. Augustine († 430) can rightly be called a teacher of Orthodox ecclesiology, incompatible with papal lust for power [7]. St. Boniface of Fulda († 754) and St. Bede the Venerable († 735) present us with colorful images of posthumous trials, complementing eastern revelations such as those involving Blessed Theodora and the tollhouses [8]. The Council of Arras in 1025 opposes the Catholic doctrine of purgatory [9].

So, when deciding on the glorification of Western saints, the matter of paramount importance is not the formal date of the schism, but the genuine doctrinal Orthodoxy of this or that ascetic. This very work of separating Western saints from those who are not saints allows us to improve our understanding of the reasons for the division that occurred and to trace how this division occurred.

Consideration of dates when glorifying Western saints
The preface to the calendar of the Holy Trinity Monastery in Weserbergland [10] states that many formal limits can be found for the glorification of Western saints. This could be 529, when the Augustinian concept of predestination was recognized at the Council of Orange [11], or 809, when the doctrine of the Filioque was solemnly proclaimed at the Council of Aachen, or 879, when the ban on any additions to the Creed was confirmed at a Pan-Orthodox Council. But since the Orthodox churches of the East, despite some poor theological developments of the Latins, did not allow a radical division of churches until 1054, then we can treat with economy those ascetics who, even if they were wrong in one point or another of faith, still conscientiously followed the church tradition, not calling his errors the teachings of the Church.

This is the position of the Holy Trinity Monastery of the Bulgarian Church. There are other opinions on this matter among the Local Churches. For example, the Church of Antioch is not limited to the year 1054 when glorifying Western saints. This Church was in real Eucharistic communion with Rome until the year 1110, and the Patriarchs of Antioch retained the name of the Pope in their diptychs. This church's Western Rite Vicariate annually honors the memory of St. Margaret of Scotland († 1093) and Edward the Confessor († 1066). The Antiochians justify such glorifications by the fact that many Western Christians for several decades after 1054 were unaware of the rupture between the Roman and Constantinopolitan churches [12]. Thus, with a careful study of the life and work of individual Western ascetics who died after 1054, a decision can be made about their glorification.

The pastors of the Antiochian Church think the same way when deciding to venerate the Scandinavian ascetics. The Vicariate of the Antiochian Church in Sweden is still being formed, but its parishes already honor the memory of Swedish missionaries who died after 1054 [13]. This veneration is justified by the fact that until 1080, Scandinavian missionaries and Christian rulers had close (including Eucharistic) communication with the Russian Orthodox and wanted to create their own autocephalous church. In 1080, Pope Gregory VII stopped the possibility of such autocephaly by subordinating the Scandinavian Christians to his jurisdiction.

The Russian Church takes a completely different position. Among all the Local Churches, the Russian Church is the most cautious in glorifying Western saints. Without establishing specific time boundaries, the Russian Church focuses on the 9th century, being skeptical about the glorification of Western saints who lived later than this time. In 1054, the split between the Western and Eastern Churches became a reality. But long before this date, even at the Council of Aachen in 809, the addition of the insertion “and from the Son” to the Creed was approved, and this time became the actual time limit, after which Western saints were no longer included in the Orthodox calendar [14]. But there may be exceptions to this rule. So recently, the Russian Church recognized a holy man in the Council of Saints who shone in the land of Germany: Ansgarius of Hamburg († 865). And soon he may not be the only example of such an exception. The Synodal Commission did not make a final decision about the German saints of the 9th-11th centuries, and they continue to study their lives and teachings [15].

Western Tradition as an Extension of the Eastern
The Western patristic tradition not only repeats the truths revealed in the Greek tradition, but also addresses issues which the Greek East had not focused on to as great of an extent. An important teaching articulated by the Western Fathers is the doctrine of the transubstantiation of the Holy Gifts. The first controversy on this topic flared up in the 9th century in connection with the publication of the book “On the Blood and Body of Christ” by St. Paschasius Radbert († 865) [17]. In this work, Saint Paschasius tried to bring together all the patristic teaching about the Body and Blood of Christ. The disputes ended with the triumph of Orthodoxy, when the book of Paschasius’s opponent, Ratramnus, was burned, and the position of Paschasius himself was recognized as corresponding to the truths of faith:

Let no one be embarrassed about this sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, that here the true Flesh and Blood are given, for He so willed it, Who created everything. And, since this is His will, we must believe that after sanctification there is nothing more than the Flesh and Blood of Christ, although remaining in the form of bread and wine. And to say even more marvelously, here is not another, but absolutely the same Flesh that was born of the Virgin Mary, suffered on the cross and rose from the grave. This very Flesh of Christ is to this day sacrificed for the life of the world and, when it is worthily accepted, restores eternal life in us” [18].

Western ascetics clarified even such subtleties as the moment of transubstantiation of the Holy Gifts, a question that continued raising questions in the East in the 2nd millennium. St. Alcuin of York († 804)[19], commenting on the ascending epiclesis of the Roman liturgy, says that the consecration of the Blessed Sacrament takes place at this moment, and not earlier:

Therefore in this prayer and in the holy offering something incomprehensible and inexpressible occurs; a miracle that surpasses all: by the ministration of angels and petitions offered up on the Heavenly Altar in the face of the Divine Majesty, gifts are offered, at the very time when, as we believe, Christ Himself with His Heavenly servants stands before [the altar] to consecrate the offered gifts" [20].

In modern theology, the concept of “Western captivity” still holds strong, according to which Orthodox theology of the 16th-18th centuries was significantly influenced by Western Roman Catholic theology. It is said that Roman Catholic dogmatics became the basis on which Orthodox theologians built their reasoning. The Kiev Theological School is said to have been especially susceptible to Western influence, and its prominent representative is St. Peter Mogila († 1647). For this reason, for example, it is proposed to reject a number of pan-Orthodox councils that were taking place at that time and the so-called “symbolic books”, which include the “Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Church of the East” by St. Peter and the “Confession of the Orthodox Faith” by Patriarch Dositheus of Jerusalem [21].

In these confessions, for the first time, the Orthodox teaching about grace, predestination, transubstantiation, the personal sinlessness of the Mother of God, and some other important provisions of the faith were firmly outlined. In view of the fact that previously in the East these questions did not have much discussion, it is proposed that all answers given to them be considered non-Orthodox and copied from Catholic catechisms. At least in this aspect of "Western captivity" the Western saints come to the rescue.

By glorifying Western ascetics, we simultaneously receive the Western patristic tradition, and it becomes part of a single Orthodox patristic teaching. Now an appeal to saints Fulgentius, Faustus, and Alcuin is recognized as an appeal not outside the Church's tradition, but inside it. Now St. Isidore of Seville and St. Bede the Venerable are recognized as equal to the fathers of antiquity. The sources of symbolic books can be called not Roman Catholic manuals, but the texts of the holy fathers. Thus, the concept of “Western captivity” is becoming obsolete.

Overcoming cultural and ritual differences
Turning to Western saints also allows us to overcome the stereotypes and prejudices that have developed in our theological environment regarding Western rituals. St. John of Shanghai spoke about this problem in a letter to a Western rite bishop, John Nektariy. St. John said:

“Unfortunately, many of our compatriots, being faithful children of the Orthodox Church, cannot always distinguish the essence of Orthodox teaching from one or another of its external manifestations, which differ from local conditions and the corresponding character of the people” [22].

By proclaiming Bishop Fulbert of Chartres († 1028) a saint [23], we can no longer join with St. Hilarion to say that “every Gothic church lacks God, lacks holiness, lacks life” [24]. St. Fulbert is the founder and builder of Chartres Cathedral, which he imagined as a perfect monument to the glory of the Mother of God. Through the construction of this grand church, he sought to establish the idea of ​​​​the special significance of the Virgin Mary in the history of our salvation. All sculptural images, frescoes, stained glass windows, and the very architectural appearance of the cathedral are coordinated with this foundational idea. And this whole grandiose composition, indeed, produced the necessary effect on visiting pilgrims. As a result, during the Middle Ages, among all the places dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Chartres Cathedral became one most visited by pilgrims.

Thus, having restored the veneration of St. Fulbert of Chartres, we begin to recognize at least some Gothic churches not as spiritless giants, but as real Orthodox icons, expressing the secrets of Orthodox theology.

There are other questions that do not concern dogmatic truths, which Western saints allow us to solve. For centuries, one such issue that divided East and West was the use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist. Although the custom itself, indeed, appeared quite late in the West, this innovation itself cannot serve as a reason for the division of churches, as St. Theophylact of Bulgaria has explained [25].

If we turn to the Western fathers, who were among the first to record the use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist, we will see that for them this question was not strictly defined. For example, St. Rabanus Maurus († 856) [26] speaks of a lack of principle regarding what kind of bread to use [27]. Each, preferring one to another, does so out of reverence for the Sacrament. For one, unleavened bread expresses the purity with which the believer approaches the Sacrament and in which the Sacrament itself is taught; for another, leaven becomes a symbol of the Kingdom of Heaven or the deified humanity of Christ. Although Rabanus Maurus himself is inclined to the first feeling, he does not reject leavened bread. And calling him a saint, we are with him and with St. Theophylact, and we can no longer make ritual features the cornerstone of our faith. We follow the VIII Ecumenical Council, which says that “we should not quarrel and argue about this among ourselves ”[28].

Problems of glorifying Western saints
So, the glorification of Western saints has a number of positive consequences, including an understanding of the true causes of the Great Schism, the restoration of unity with Western Christians who fell away from Orthodoxy, the strengthening of the proclaimed dogmatic truths by tradition, ritual and cultural diversity. To this one could also add the spiritual benefit to believers produced by the ascetic writings of the Western fathers. But we must honestly admit that the glorification of Western saints also produces some new problems.

What criteria should be used to determine the possibility of glorifying a particular Western ascetic? Different local churches handle this issue differently.

The Synodal Commission of the Russian Church has clear rules according to which the veneration of Western saints is restored:

impeccable confession of the Orthodox faith; the circumstances under which the glorification took place; lack of mention of the saint’s name in polemical works on the fight against the Eastern Church and the Eastern rite; modern veneration in foreign dioceses of the Russian Orthodox Church and Local Orthodox Churches" [29].

For this clarity, some Orthodox believers, when deciding for themselves the issue of venerating Western saints, are inclined to trust the Russian Church more than any other.

It is believed that other local Orthodox churches are less critical of the glorification of Western saints. For example, doubts have been expressed about the monthbook of the Archdiocese of Italy and Malta of the Patriarchate of Constantinople [30], which includes almost all the popes of the 1st millennium revered in the Roman Catholic Church. Also, some believers are confused by the martyrology of the Western Rite Vicariate of the Antiochian Archdiocese of North America. It lists among the saints Pope Nicholas I and the German Emperor Henry II, who approved the singing of the Creed in Rome in 1014 with the addition of Filioque (“And from the Son”) [31].

The Romanian Church’s inclusion in its calendar of Bishop Paulinus of Aquileia († 802)[32], who first added the Filioque to the Creed and justified this addition from a theological point of view, also causes caution. The arguments of Paulinus of Aquileia for the admissibility of additions to the Creed were subsequently used by Catholic theologians in disputes with Orthodox apologists. Also included in this calendar is the name of Agobard of Lyons († 840), an iconoclast and opponent of any veneration of images [33].

The calendar of the Constantinople Church of the French Exarchate, which includes a number of English saints who lived at the end of the 11th century, requires additional study [34].

Despite the fact that the calendars with Western saints are not perfect, it seems to us impossible to deny holiness to ascetics who are glorified for veneration in at least one diocese of any Local Church. In the Russian Church we have many saints glorified only for local veneration. Bishops are given the power to bind and loose. Therefore, in our opinion, the glorification of the saint took place when his veneration was approved by the diocesan authorities and did not meet resistance from the superior bishop. All described calendars satisfy this criterion.

The Spanish question
There are a number of saints who died long before 1054, whose glorification seems hasty to many. Of particular note here is the Spanish Church. Almost since their conversion to Orthodoxy (589), Spanish bishops have made questionable theological decisions, leading some to even ask, “Was Spain ever Orthodox?”

The most famous teacher of the Spanish Church, Bishop Isidore of Seville, in his writings, repeatedly spoke out against the religious activities of the Emperor, St. Justinian, including in his condemnation of the “Three Chapters”. Thanks to him and other Spanish saints, until the end of the 8th century, Spain did not accept the Second Council of Constantinople as an Ecumenical Council. At the same time, the Spanish Church never broke communion with Rome and was never formally in schism.

Among other “Spanish problems” one can name the first inclusion of the doctrine of the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Son in the decrees of the Spanish councils and the development of this doctrine by the Toledo councils. Although it is difficult to say for sure whether the definitions of the Toledo councils about the Filioque are heresy, because they are excerpts from the texts of the Western Fathers of the Church, primarily St. Augustine. However, the very attention to the Filioque as a special church teaching ultimately leads the Western Church to the heresy of the participation of the Son of God in the origin of the Holy Spirit, and to the inclusion of the Filioque in the Creed.

Perhaps the inclusion of the Filioque in the Creed would never have happened without the contribution of the Spanish Church. Beginning with the IV Council of Toledo, more and more new creeds are being produced in Spain, and thus the significance of the Symbol of Faith of Constantinople (the Nicene Creed) as a single Creed of the entire Church is depreciating. The multiplicity of creeds ultimately leads the Spanish bishops to replace the singing during the liturgy of the Nicene Creed with a creed close to it, which confesses the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son. This raises a difficult question: can those who changed the Creed be considered saints?

We believe that it would be better if there were no such glorifications of the saints, so as not to cause unnecessary temptations among believers. But due to the fact that these glorifications have already occurred (including in the Russian Church), we cannot resist the decision of the Church, and we reserve the title of saints for these persons.

In reality, we do not know which specific Spanish bishop is guilty of changing the Creed. And in the alleged perpetrators we see obedience to the Church, concern for their flock, extreme mercy, fear of God and attention to the teachings of the fathers. And we think that if one of these ascetics were convicted of changing the Creed, they would humbly accept admonition from the Church and repent of their mistakes. These persons are not teachers of schism, but at the same time they are not impeccable teachers of Orthodoxy. Though we do not agree with them on everything, we also do not go against the Church by denying them the title of sainthood.

There are other solutions to the “Spanish question”. We know that in the Western patristic tradition the Second Council of Constantinople was accepted as an Ecumenical Council. And admirers of Isidore of Seville or Martinian of Braga, such as St. Bede the Venerable, were also admirers of the Fifth Ecumenical Council. That is, within the framework of the Western tradition itself, the errors of Isidore of Seville were not accepted, but, like the shame of Noah, they were covered with silence by wise sons (Gen. 9:23). Likewise, in the Greek tradition, the mistakes of the fathers did not become a reason for their rejection. Here you can remember (God forgive me) the famous story of St. Gregory of Nyssa and apokatastasis, the words of St. John Chrysostom about the sins of the Mother of God, and much more. By accepting the Western tradition as Orthodox, we, together with it, forgive the mistakes of St. Isidore of Seville, as we did repeatedly in the Eastern tradition in relation to the Greek fathers [35].

In particular, we note that it is unacceptable to deny sainthood to St. Isidore of Seville. The fact that he is rightfully considered one of the fathers and teachers of the Orthodox Church has been confirmed by a considerable number of Orthodox Local Churches. He is venerated as a saint in the Greek and American churches,[36] his local veneration is approved by the Romanian [37], Serbian [38], Polish [39], Antiochian [40], Constantinople [41] Churches and the Western Exarchate of the Russian Church [42]. How much is the decision of such a multitude of Churches inferior to an Ecumenical decision?

The Church of Spain seems like the Church of the martyrs, many of whom shone forth in it at its very birth and at its decline at the end of the 1st millennium. Moreover, among the Cordubian martyrs martyred by Muslims in the 9th century, there are representatives of the Greek tradition. Thus, the holy martyr George of Korduba came from the brethren of the monastery of Sava the Sanctified, and being sent to North Africa, heard about the exploits of the Spanish martyrs. Inspired by their steadfastness in the faith, Saint George went on to Spain, and together with St. Aurelius and Sabigoton suffered martyrdom [43].

Paulinus of Aquileia and the Filioque
Spain does not pose the only problem for the glorification of Western saints. There are persons revered by some local churches, whose glorification seems doubtful even in the case of extreme charity. This applies primarily to Paulinus of Aquileia and Emperor Henry II.[44] They played a significant role in securing the Filioque insertion into the Creed. The very inclusion of the Filioque in the Creed served as one of the starting points of the Great Schism. It was because Pope Sergius II expounded the Creed with the insertion of the Filioque in 1009 that the Greek episcopate decided to exclude the pope's name from the diptychs.

The glorification of Paulinus of Aquileia as a holy father creates problems for the restoration of the Western tradition itself, because his idea of ​​​​the Creed entered the Western (Roman Catholic) tradition, but not the Orthodox tradition. And although it is likely that Paulinus, who gives great authority to the opinion of the pope, would have renounced his opinions if he had lived to see the time when Pope St. Leo III opposed the Filioque, yet it was his actions that served as the basis for the future schism. And no missionary achievements cited by admirers of Bishop Pavlin [45] can overshadow the crime he committed against the Faith. However, as we said earlier, we will not oppose the decision of the episcopate. And, unfortunately, we cannot offer any solution to this problem other than simply excluding Paulinus of Aquileia from the calendars of saint commemorations.

Obviously, a more detailed study of the life of Western saints during their glorification is necessary. And this study should not stop even after the glorification of the righteous.

Having venerated St. Augustine, St. Jerome, St. Hilary, and St. Ambrose among the saints for centuries, we still have a superficial understanding of their theology. This is especially true for the saints of the post-Justinian era: St. Faustus of Rhegium, St. Fulgentius of Ruspia, St. Isidore of Seville, St. Bede the Venerable, and others. Unfortunately, the restoration of veneration of Western saints has not made all of us want to study their works and lives, or to immerse ourselves in their tradition. To some extent, the Western tradition still remains alien to us.

Even the fundamental question of the Filioque, which divided the Eastern and Western Churches, remains neglected. Many do not understand what exactly is the heresy about the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Son, and are frightened by the very formula “ex Patre Filioque procedit”, as if the utterance of the word "Filioque" itself is a heresy. In fact, the Filioque teaching can have many different dimensions, which were also noted by the Eastern Fathers.

St. Maximus the Confessor used the Orthodox teaching of Western theologians about the economy of the Holy Spirit, and the use of the Filioque, to express the consubstantiality of the Persons of the Holy Trinity [46]. St. Gregory of Cyprus found in the Filioque a place for the eternal relationship of the Son and the Spirit [47]. St. Gregory Palamas boldly, for St. Hilary of Pictavia, called the Holy Spirit the Love of the Father and the Son [48]. And we have listed only those Orthodox aspects of the Filioque that our Eastern holy fathers saw. But the Filioque was also used in the West to express other truths, for example, the belonging or relativity of Persons to each other, according to St. Isidore, Faustus, or Boethius. Completely unexplored is the Christological Filioque, developed by St. Alcuin, and used by him in polemics with adoptionists.

We also note that the reader of the Creed with the Filioque could still profess Orthodox triadology. A striking example of such a paradoxical combination is John Scotus Eriugena († 877), who read the Creed with an addition only because he did not dare to speak out against the “fathers” who made the addition even before his birth [49]. And after Eriugena, among the Franks there were theologians who, most likely, read the Creed with the Filioque and at the same time, maintaining unity with the Church, taught that “the Father is the source and issue of the deity” [50]. In general, the Filioque formula does not always express the doctrine of the Father and the Son as the sole cause of the Holy Spirit.

Many specifically Western teachings remain insufficiently studied, including those about predestination, purifying fire, contemplation of the Divine essence, and the Wisdom of God. This is part of the reason for the difficulties with the glorification of Western saints. A closer look at the Fathers is needed now more than ever.

[1] St. John Maximovich. About the veneration of the saints who shone in the West. Report to the Synod of Bishops, 1952 // [Electronic resource] Magazine “Foma”. URL:  https://foma.ru/svyatitel-ioann-maksimovich-o-pochitanii-svyatyih-prosiyavshih-na-zapade.html  (Date accessed 09/21/2023)

[2] On the Orthodox veneration of Western saints. [Electronic resource] Website of the Church of St. right John of Kronstadt in Hamburg. URL:  https://www.hamburg-hram.de/svyatyie/svyatitel-ansgar/o-pravoslavnom-pochitanii-zapadnyx-svyatyx  (Access date: 09/21/2023)

[3] His memory is on January 14 in the Western Exarchate of the Russian Church. [Electronic resource] Orthochristian.com. URL:  https://orthochristian.com/calendar/20230101.html  (Access date: 09/21/2023)

[4] St. Fulgentius of Russia. Against the Arians. Book 1 // PL 65. Col. 224

[5] St. Damasus of Rome. Confession of the Catholic Faith. // PL 13. Col. 362

[6] See the article by P. A. Pashkov “7th rule of the Third Ecumenical Council: its history and reception in the context of the question of the immutability of the Creed” // Bulletin of PSTGU. Series II: History. History of the Russian Orthodox Church. 2023. Issue. 112. pp. 11-34

[7] See article by P. A. Pashkov “Conciliarity and primacy: St. Augustine." [Electronic resource] URL:  https://vk.com/@176438108-augustinus  (Access date: 09/21/2023)

[8] St. Trouble Hon. Church history of the English people. Book 3. // Transl. from lat. and decree V.V. Erlichman; Rep. ed. S.E. Fedorov. [Electronic resource] The ABC of Faith. URL:  https://azbyka.ru/otechnik/Beda_Dostopochtennyj/tserkovnaja-istorija-naroda-anglov/3  (Date of access: 09/21/2023) and St. Boniface of Fulda. Message from St. Edburg of Thanet about the vision of one monk in the Wenlock monastery // Apostle of Germany. Boniface, Archbishop of Mainz: educator, missionary, martyr: Life, correspondence. The end of the 7th - beginning of the 8th century. - M.: Publishing House of the MP ROC, Tula, 2020. P. 198-199

[9] This council says that posthumous cleansing from sins is accomplished by offering hosts and alms for the deceased and nothing else: “Truly, so that no one would think that repentance is useful only for the living and useless for the dead, many deceased were rescued from torment by the love of the living close to them , according to the testimony of Scripture, by making a sacrifice to the Intercessor (Mass), or by alms, or by the living accepting repentance for a deceased friend, if death, ahead of the patient, did not allow him to fulfill it and if a living friend begs for it. ... Therefore, the holy teachers rightfully say that there is a purifying fire, through which other sins are removed, if only the living achieve this through alms, masses, or, as I said, vicarious repentance. It is clear, therefore, that at the cost of such deeds the dead can be forgiven of their sins, otherwise the words of the Apostle Paul, distorted by you, would not be understandable, who says that small and insignificant sins are easily destroyed by cleansing fire, whereas they would entail not cleansing executions, but eternal, if the hosts were not worthy of being removed by purifying fire through offerings.” The birth of purgatory. Jacques Le Goff: trans. from fr. V. Babintseva, T. Kraevoy. – M., AST MOSCOW, 2009. P. 160-161

[10] Orthodoxer Kirchenkalender. Lesungen und Heiligengedenken für jeden Tag des Jahres. — Heiliges Dreifaltigkeitskloſter Buchhagen. Bulgariſches Patriarchat. 2023. S. 4-5

[11] Apparently, the authors of the calendar consider this concept not Orthodox. We don't agree with them.

[12] Life os St. Margaret of Scotland. [Electronic Resource]St. Gregory Orthodox Church. URL:  https://www.stgregoryoc.org/st-margaret-of-scotland/  (Access date: 09.22.2023)

[13]Livet för Den Helige Eskil av Tuna. [Electronic Resource] Kristi Uppståndelses Ortodoxa församling. URL:  https://kristiuppstandelse.se/den-helige-eskil-av-tuna/  (Access date: 09.22.2023)

[14] Deacon Igor Shchirovsky. About the conference “Saints of Germany of the 1st Millennium”. [Electronic resource] URL:  https://nadegda.de/ru/poslanija-i-stat-i/2404-11-09-2019.html  (Access date: 09/23/2023)

[15] [Electronic resource] Official website of the Moscow Patriarchate. URL:  http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/6052186.html  (Access date: 09/23/2023)

[16] See Letter of the Patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Church on the Orthodox Faith. [Electronic resource] The ABC of Faith. URL:  https://azbyka.ru/otechnik/bogoslovie/poslanie-patriarhov-vostochno-kafolicheskoj-tserkvi-o-pravoslavnoj-vere-1723-g/#source  (Access date: 09/22/2023). And "Rules of the Council of Orange 529". [Electronic resource] Tree. Open Orthodox Encyclopedia. URL:  https://drevo-info.ru/articles/13674773.html  (Access date: 09.22.2023)

[17] His memory is on April 26 in the Bulgarian Church. Orthodox Kirchenkalender. S. 31

[18] Rev. Paschazy Radbert. About the Blood and Body of Christ. // Nikolay Malitsky. Eucharistic dispute in the West in the 9th century. Scientific works of the Petrograd Theological Academy. Issue 8. - Sergiev Posad. Printing house St.-Tr. Sergius Lavra. 1917. pp. 136-137

[19] His memory is on May 19 in the Bulgarian Church. Orthodox Kirchenkalender. S. 34. And May 20 in the Western Rite Vicariate of the North American Antiochian Archdiocese. Orthodox prayer book of St. Tikhon, Patriarch of All-Russia. - M.: “Spasskoye Delo”, 2022. P. 383

[20] Blzh. Alcuin of York. About divine services. // PL 101. Col. 1263

[21] See Archbishop Vasily (Krivoshein). Symbolic texts in the Orthodox Church // Archbishop. Vasily (Krivoshein). Theological works / Comp. Deacon Alexander Musin. – Nizhny Novgorod: Christian Library Publishing House, 2011. P. 430-481

[22] St. John of Shanghai. Word on the presentation of the staff to Bishop John-Nectarios of Saint-Denis. [Electronic resource] VKontakte community “ALL ABOUT WESTERN ORTHODOXY” URL:  https://vk.com/wall-25340345_16948  (Access date: 09/22/2023)

[23] His memory is on April 10 in the Romanian Church. Calendrier Liturgique. Metropole Orthodoxe Roumaine d'Europe. Occidentale et Meridionale. Doyenne de France. 2023. P. 26

[24] Sschmch. Hilarion Troitsky. Letters about the West. Letter 3. Cologne Cathedral // Hilarion (Trinity), martyr. There is no Christianity without the Church. 2nd ed. - M.: Sretensky Monastery Publishing House, 2017. P. 281

[25] “If they correct their dogmatic teaching and instead of innovation return to ancient institutions, then let them adhere to their customs regarding unleavened bread and fasting and turn away from us when we “in a spirit of meekness” (Gal. 6:1) ask for unanimity and in this. Here, be Paul, who “was as one under the law” (1 Cor. 9:20)… So lead your ship. Don’t try to go with full sail all the time, especially where the wind of pride and tribal (national) pride blows; know how to slow down in time, since it is better to slowly bring the ship to the harbor than to hastily bring it to the bottom; It is better to save the ship by relaxation than by intransigence to bring the matter to a wreck.” [Electronic resource] Community VKontakte “Ἀλήθεια | Orthodox theology". URL:  https://vk.com/wall-184478279_132547  (Date of access: 09/22/2023)

[26] His memory is in the Cathedral of Saints of the German Land on February 4. [Electronic resource] Official website of the parishes of the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God in Kaiserslautern and the Great Martyr. and Healer Panteleimon in Saarbrücken. URL:  http://www.saarbruecken.orthodoxy.ru/Svjatye-Germanii.pdf  (Access date: 09/22/2023)

[27] St. Rabanus the Moor. De clericorum institutione. Lib. 3. Cap. XXXI // PL 107. Col. 317

[28] Acts of the Council of Constantinople 879-880. [Electronic resource] Community VKontakte “Ἀλήθεια | Orthodox theology". URL:  https://vk.com/wall-184478279_129087  (Date of access: 09/22/2023)

[29] Synod: Canonization of the ancient saints of the Western countries. [Electronic resource] URL:  https://ortodoksnorge.no/2017/03/10/kanonizacia_sv_drevnej_cerkvi_zapada/  (Access date: 09/22/2023)

[30] [Electronic resource] Official website of the Archdiocese of Italy and Malta of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. URL:  https://ortodossia.it/  (Access date: 09/22/2023)

[31] A Western Rite Orthodox Martyrology. —St. Gregory the Great Orthodox Church Washington, 2015. P. 126, 209

[32] His memory is January 11. Calendrier Liturgique. Metropole Orthodoxe Roumaine d'Europe. Occidentale et Meridionale. Doyenne de France. 2023. P. 9

[33] His memory is June 6. Ibid. p. 40

[34] Services liturgiques orthodoxes. Synaxaire calendrier des saints orthodoxes [Electronic resource] Vicariate of Sainte-Marie-de-Paris and Saint-Alexis-d'Ougin. URL:  http://servicesliturgiques.free.fr/doc/synaxaire/calendrier_saints.php  (Access date: 09.22.2023)

[35] St. Photius of Constantinople writes: “Were there many difficult situations that forced many Fathers to express themselves partly inaccurately, partly to speak as they applied to the circumstances during the attack of enemies, and others because of human ignorance, to which they also fell? If others did not speak accurately, or for a reason unknown to us even deviated from the straight path, but there was no research, and no one called them to inquire into the truth, we leave them among the fathers, just as if they had not spoken. Moreover, partly for the celebrity of their lives and the glory of their virtues, partly for the integrity of their faith in other respects; but we do not follow their words where they sinned.” [Electronic resource] Priest. Dimitry Moiseev. Did the saints make mistakes? URL:  https://bible.predanie.ru/svyashchannik-dmitriy-moiseev-oshibalis-li-svyatye  (Access date: 09/22/2023)

[36] Μεγασ Συναξαριστησ (Great Monthly Book), according to the book: Αγαθάγγελος (Χαραμαντίδης), Επ. Φαναρίου, Μεγασ Συναξαριστησ (Bishop of Phanaria Agathangel, “Synaxarion of the Orthodox Church”), Αποστολικής Διακονίας της Εκκλησίας της Ελλάδος. [Electronic resource] URL:  http://www.synaxarion.gr/gr/sid/2547/sxsaintinfo.aspx  (the calendar is listed on the official website of the Patriarchate of Constantinople:  https://www.goarch.org/ru/chapel/search? m=1&d=1&y=2015  ). And the Calendar on the official website of the Orthodox Church in America. URL:  https://oca.org/saints/lives/2016/04/04/100993-st-isidore-th...lle  (Access date: 09/22/2023)

[37] [Electronic resource] Page of the Romanian site Calendar Ortodox - Sfintii Zilei - Vietile Sfintilor - Sinaxar. URL:  http://www.calendar-ortodox.ro/sfintii_aprilie.htm  (Date of access: 09.22.2023)

[38] Hieromonk Chrysostom Stolis Hilandarats. Orthodox luminary. Mesetsoslov svetih. ΑΓΙΟΛΟΓΙΟΝ. Tom, hello. Septembar. — Publisher: Kaleniћ, Beograd, 1988. P. 382.

[39] [Electronic resource] Calendar on the portal Cerkiew.pl. URL:  https://cerkiew.pl/swieci/-zydor-vi-vii-2318  (Date of access: 09.22.2023)

[40] A Western Rite Calendar for the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America. St. Gregory the Great Orthodox Church. 800 East Randolph Road, Silver Spring, MD. 2023

[41] Services liturgiques orthodoxes. Synaxaire calendrier des saints orthodoxes

[42] [Electronic resource] Orthochristian.com. URL:  https://orthochristian.com/calendar/20230404.html  (Access date: 09/21/2023)

[43] Sschmch. Eulogius Kordubsky. Memorial Book of Saints // Mater Hispania: Christianity in Spain in the 1st millennium: trans. from lat. language / comp. Archpriest Andrey Kordochkin. - St. Petersburg: Aletheya, 2018. pp. 475-489

[44] We consider the inclusion of Pope Nicholas in the martyrology of the Antiochian Church to be the fruit of simple carelessness of the compilers of the martyrology.

[45] There are many positive elements in the activities of the blessed one. Peacock of Aquileia is noted on the website of one Orthodox parish of the Russian Church. [Electronic resource] Parish of the Exaltation of the Cross in Udine, Italy, Russian Orthodox Church. URL:  http://udine.cerkov.ru/svyatoj-pavlin-akvilejskij/  (Access date: 09/22/2023)

[46] See Jean-Claude Larcher. St. Maximus the Confessor - mediator between East and West; lane from fr. O. Nikolaeva. - M.: Sretensky Monastery, 2004

[47] See V.V. Mitsuk. The main ideas of the theological polemic of Patriarch Gregory of Cyprus against supporters of the union and opponents of the doctrine of the “shine” of the Holy Spirit through the Son. [Electronic resource] Bogoslov.ru. URL:  https://bogoslov.ru/article/6023804  (Access date: 09/22/2023)

[48] “The Spirit of the Highest Word is, as it were, some ineffable Love of the Parent for the Ineffably Begotten Word Himself.” See St. Gregory Palamas. One hundred and fifty chapters. Part 1. Chapter VII. // One hundred and fifty chapters. St. Gregory Palamas. Per. from Greek and approx. A.I. Sidorova. – Krasnodar, Text, 2006. pp. 66-72

[49] “But if anyone had asked the Holy Fathers, who in the Latin Symbol regarding the Spirit added “Qui ex Patre Filioque procedit,” they, I believe, would have given a reasonable answer and stated the reason for this addition. Perhaps they were asked and they answered, but their opinion on this subject has not yet reached our hands, and therefore we refrain from hasty judgment on this matter, unless it is said that this addition was not made without reason, since it is supported by many passages from Holy Scripture. For the Lord Himself says: “Whomever the Father sends in My name” ( John 14:26 ) ... No matter how the Church Symbol is pronounced, I accept it without endangering sound faith, that is, whether anyone says that the Holy Spirit proceeds only from the Father, or from the Father and the Son, provided that we equally believe and understand that the same Spirit essentially proceeds from one cause, that is, from the Father.” [Electronic resource] Pravmir. URL:  https://www.pravmir.ru/eriugena-o-filioque/  (Date of access: 09/22/2023)

[50]  St. Brunon of Wurzburg.  Psalter of the Fathers and Teachers of the Church // PL 142. Col. 564

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